IBM proposed the concept of "smart earth" and suggested that the government invest in the construction of a new generation of smart infrastructure. The next stage of the IT industry's mission is to apply the new generation of information technology to various industries, embed and equip sensors in power grids, transportation, bridges, tunnels, buildings, dams, water and oil pipelines, urban infrastructure, etc. In a variety of objects, and connected through the network to form the "Internet of Things".

The main processes of the Internet of Things work are induction, transmission and wisdom: firstly, the static attributes and dynamic attributes of the objects are sensed, and the environment variables are sensed; then the long-distance, broadband, and reliable information transmission is carried out; Fast and intelligent processing.

The current Internet of Things is different from the earlier Internet of Things. The early Internet of Things used RFID technology to identify and perceive the static characteristics of items, and used the Internet for information transmission. The current Internet of Things obtains various information through various information-aware devices, such as RFID, photoelectric sensors, and global positioning systems. Information transmission and processing based on the Internet, to achieve communication and interaction between people and things, things and things. The Internet of Things involves multiple disciplines and technologies, and needs advanced communication technologies as support.

The Internet of Things technology has been widely used at this stage. It uses various technologies to perceive, transmit, process, and feed back information. Its biggest feature is the diversity, decentralization, intelligence, and real-time nature of perception. Diversity is manifested by many sensing objects, many sensing parameters, and large capacity; decentralization means that people and things, things and things are usually more dispersed; wisdom refers to the need to analyze and process data; practicality means real-time perception, transmission and Processing information.

Optical fiber communication and optical fiber sensing technology will play an important role in the field of Internet of Things

Optical fiber is a light transmission medium made of silica glass material with a diameter of 0.125mm and a length from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The loss of the optical fiber is very small. In the 1.55um band, the loss can be as low as 0.2dB per kilometer. About 99% of the incident light can pass through the 1 kilometer of optical fiber.

The optical fiber has wide frequency characteristics, and various sensors can be reused for one optical fiber for detection and transmission. Optical fiber sensor has the advantages of small size, light weight, strong durability, anti-electromagnetic interference, no power supply for the sensor head, safe use (good insulation, no risk of fire and explosion), remote telemetry, multi-point multiplexing, distributed measurement As a sensor, fiber optic materials have unique advantages.

The principle of optical fiber sensing is to detect changes in external physical quantities by detecting changes in the intensity, phase, frequency / wavelength, and polarization of light waves transmitted in the optical fiber. Fiber optic sensors can be made into discrete, quasi-continuous and decentralized sensor measurement systems. Various variables such as temperature, displacement, acceleration, pressure, strain, electric field, magnetic field, rotation, gas concentration, flow rate, rust and turbidity can be measured.

The application range of fiber optic sensors is very wide, mainly in the following aspects:

The application of interferometric gyroscopes and grating pressure sensors in bridges, dams and oil fields in urban construction. Fiber optic sensors can be pre-buried in concrete, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, and various composite materials to test stress relaxation, construction stress, and dynamic load stress to evaluate the structural performance of the bridge during the short-term construction phase and long-term operation.

In the power system, parameters such as temperature and current need to be measured, such as the detection of the temperature in the stator and rotor of high-voltage transformers and large motors. Because electrical sensors are susceptible to interference from electromagnetic fields, they cannot be used in such occasions. Fiber optic sensors can be used. For example, the distributed optical fiber temperature sensor is a high-tech technology developed in recent years for instantaneous measurement of the spatial temperature field distribution.

Used for temperature measurement of the production process and equipment of flammable and explosive materials. The optical fiber sensor is essentially a fire and explosion-proof device. It does not require explosion-proof measures and is very safe and reliable. Compared with electrical sensors, it can both reduce costs and increase sensitivity.

In addition, it can also be used in railway monitoring, rocket propulsion systems, and oil well detection.

In short, the Internet of Things and optical fiber sensing have a complementary and mutually reinforcing role. Optical fiber also has the obvious advantages of broadband, large capacity, long-distance transmission and multi-parameter, decentralized, low energy consumption sensing. Optical fiber sensing can continuously absorb new technologies of optical fiber communication (such as new semiconductor light sources, new optical fibers), new devices, and various optical fiber sensors are expected to be widely used in the Internet of Things. Optical fiber technology has a very broad application prospect in the Internet of Things. The all-optical Internet of Things is expected to appear in the future and become a new form of Internet of Things.

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